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Hea 02 Indoor air quality

Number of credits available Minimum standards

Building type dependent

No

Aim

To recognise and encourage a healthy internal environment through the specification and installation of appropriate ventilation, equipment and finishes.

Assessment Criteria

This issue is split into three parts:

Please note:

The following is required to demonstrate compliance for:

Minimising sources of air pollution

One credit

  1. An indoor air quality plan has been produced which considers;
    1. Removal of contaminant sources
    2. Dilution and control of contaminant sources
    3. Procedures for pre-occupancy flush out
    4. 3rd party testing and analysis.
    5. Maintaining indoor air quality in-use
  2. For air-conditioned and mixed-mode buildings: the building’s air intakes and exhausts are over 10m apart to minimise recirculation and intakes are over 20m from sources of external pollution.
  3. For naturally-ventilated buildings: openable windows/ventilators are over 10m from sources of external pollution.
  4. The building has been designed to provide fresh air and minimise internal pollutants (and ingress of external polluted air into the building) in accordance with the criteria of the relevant standard for ventilation.
  5. Areas of the building subject to large and unpredictable or variable occupancy patterns have CO2 or air quality sensors specified and:
    1. In mechanically ventilated spaces, the sensor(s) are linked to the mechanical ventilation system and provide demand-controlled ventilation to the space.
    2. In naturally ventilated spaces, the sensors either have the ability to alert the building owner/manager when CO2 levels exceed the recommended set point, or are linked to controls with the ability to adjust the quantity of fresh air, i.e. automatic opening windows/roof vents.

One credit

  1. Criterion 1 is achieved.
  2. All decorative paints and varnishes have met the requirements listed in Table 7
  3. At least five of the eight remaining product categories listed in Table 7have met the testing requirements and emission levels for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions against the relevant standards identified within this table. Where five or less products are specified within the building, all must meet the requirements in order to achieve this credit.

Table 7 VOC criteria by product type

Ref

Product Requirements
A Paints and varnishes
Performance requirements VOC content limit
Compliant performance standard EU Directive 2004/42/CE ('Paints Directive')

Compliant testing standard

BS EN ISO 11890-2:2013 – Paints and varnishes – Determination of VOC content, Part 2 – Gas Chromatographic method

Manufacturer also to confirm

Paint to be fungal and algal resistant in wet areas e.g. bathrooms, kitchens, utility rooms

B Wood panels (including particle board, fibreboard including MDF, OSB, cement bonded particle board, plywood, solid wood panel and acoustic board)
Option 1  
Performance requirements

Formaldehyde E1 class

Compliant performance standard BS EN 13986:2004 Wood-based panels for use in construction - Characteristics evaluation of conformity and marking
Compliant testing standard(s) BS EN 717-1:2004 Wood-based panels – Determination of formaldehyde release - Part 1: Formaldehyde emission by the chamber method

Manufacturer also to confirm

The absence of prohibited wood preservatives/biocides.

Option 2  
Performance requirements Formaldehyde level of 0.1mg/m³
Compliant testing standard(s)
  1. BS EN ISO 16000-9:2006 Indoor air - Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from building products and furnishing - Emission test chamber method. OR
  2. Standard method for the testing and evaluation of volatile organic chemical emissions from indoor sources using environmental chambers, version 1.1 - Emission testing method for California Specification 01350, Californian Department for Public Health, 2010.

Note: For either method the resultant emission/surface area obtained from the chamber test method must be extrapolated to predict what the emissions would be in a theoretical model room (as detailed in the standard) and this extrapolated emission rate compared with the required formaldehyde level of 0.1mg/m³.

Manufacturer also to confirm

The absence of prohibited wood preservatives/biocides.

C Timber structures (e.g. glue laminated timber)
Option 1  
Performance requirements

Formaldehyde E1 Class

Compliant performance standards BE EN 14080:2005 Timber structures - Glues laminated timber - Requirements
Compliant testing standards BS EN 717-1:2004 Wood-based panels – Determination of formaldehyde release - Part 1: Formaldehyde emission by the chamber method
Option 2  
Performance requirements As category B Option 2.
Compliant testing standards As category B Option 2.
D Wood flooring (e.g. parquet)
Option 1  
Performance requirements

Formaldehyde E1 Class

Compliant performance standard BS EN 14342:2005+A1:2008 Wood flooring - Characteristics, evaluation of conformity and marking
Compliant testing standards BS EN 717-1:2004 Wood-based panels – Determination of formaldehyde release - Part 1: Formaldehyde emission by the chamber method

Option 2

 
Performance requirements As category B Option 2.
Compliant testing standards As category B Option 2.
E Resilient textile and laminated floor coverings (e.g. vinyl, linoleum, cork, rubber, carpet, laminated wood flooring)
Option 1  
Performance requirements

Option 1 - Formaldehyde E1 Class

Compliant performance standard BS EN 14041:2004 Resilient, textile and laminate floor coverings - Essential characteristics
Compliant testing standards BS EN 717-1:2004 Wood-based panels – Determination of formaldehyde release - Part 1: Formaldehyde emission by the chamber method
Option 2  
Performance requirements As category B Option 2.
Compliant testing standards As category B Option 2.
F Suspended ceiling tiles
Option 1  

Performance requirements

Formaldehyde E1 Class

Compliant performance standard BS EN 13964:2004+A1:2006 Suspended ceilings - Requirements and test methods
Compliant testing standards BS EN 717-1:2004 Wood-based panels – Determination of formaldehyde release - Part 1: Formaldehyde emission by the chamber method
Option 2  
Performance requirements As category B Option 2.
Compliant testing standards As category B Option 2.
G Flooring adhesives
Performance requirements

Carcinogenic or sensitising volatile substances are substantially absent

Compliant performance standard BS EN 13999-1:2013 Adhesives - Short term method for measuring the emission properties of low-solvent or solvent-free adhesives after application - Part 1: General procedure
Compliant testing standard
  1. BS EN 13999-1:2013 Adhesives - Short term method for measuring the emission properties of low-solvent or solvent-free adhesives after application - Part 1: General procedure
  2. BS EN 13999-2:2013 Adhesives - Short term method for measuring the emission properties of low-solvent or solvent-free adhesives after application - Part 2: Determination of volatile organic compounds
  3. BS EN 13999-3:2007+A1:2009 Adhesives - Short term method for measuring the emission properties of low-solvent or solvent-free adhesives after application - Part 3: Determination of volatile aldehydes
  4. BS EN 13999-4:2007+A1:2009 Adhesives - Short term method for measuring the emission properties of low-solvent or solvent-free adhesives after application - Part 4: Determination of volatile diisocyanates
H Wall coverings
Performance requirements
  • Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) content
  • Formaldehyde level
  • Migration of heavy metals
Compliant performance standard
  1. BS EN 233:1999 Wallcoverings in roll form - Specification for finished wallpapers, wall vinyls and plastic wall coverings
  2. BS EN 234:1997 Wallcoverings in roll form - Specification for wallcoverings for subsequent decoration
  3. BS EN 259-1:2001 Wallcoverings in roll form - Heavy duty wallcoverings - Part 1: Specifications
Compliant testing standard

BS EN 12149:1998 – Wall coverings in roll form. Determination of migration of heavy metals and certain other elements, of vinyl chloride monomer and of formaldehyde release

One credit

  1. Criterion 1 is achieved
  2. Formaldehyde concentration level is measured post construction (but pre-occupancy) and is found to be less than or equal to 100µg/m3 averaged over 30 minutes (WHO guidelines, source BRE Digest 464 part 21BRE Digest 464, VOC emissions from building products: control, evaluation and labelling schemes, Yu, C. and Crump. D, 2002).
  3. The total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentration is measured post construction (but pre-occupancy) and found to be less than 300µg/m3 over 8 hours, in line with the Building Regulation requirements.
  4. Where levels are found to exceed these limits, the project team confirms the measures that have, or will be undertaken in accordance with the IAQ plan, to reduce the TVOC and formaldehyde levels to within the above limits.
  5. The testing and measurement of the above pollutants are in accordance with the following standards where relevant:
    1. BS EN ISO 16000-4: 2004 Diffusive sampling of formaldehyde in air2BS EN ISO 16000-4: 2004: Determination of formaldehyde -- Diffusive sampling method
    2. EN ISO 16000-6 VOCs in air by active sampling3EN ISO 16000-6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID
    3. BS EN 16017-2: 2003 VOCs - Indoor, ambient and workplace air by passive sampling4BS EN ISO 16017-2:2003, Indoor, ambient and workplace air. Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds by sorbent tube/thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography. Diffusive sampling
    4. BS EN ISO 16000-3: 20015BS EN ISO 16000-3: 2001: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds -- Active sampling method formaldehyde and other carbonyls in air by pumped sampling.
  6. The measured concentration levels of formaldehyde (µg/m3) and TVOC (µg/m3) are reported, via the BREEAM scoring and reporting tool, for the purpose of confirming criteria 10 to 12.

Potential for natural ventilation

One credit (credit not applicable to prison buildings)

  1. Occupied spaces of the building are designed to be capable of providing fresh air entirely via a natural ventilation strategy, demonstrated via either of the following:
    1. The openable window area in each occupied space is equivalent to 5% of the gross internal floor area of that room/floor plate. For room/floor plates between 7m-15m depth, the openable window area must be on opposite sides and evenly distributed across the area to promote adequate cross-ventilation OR
    2. The design demonstrates that the natural ventilation strategy provides adequate cross flow of air to maintain required thermal comfort conditions and ventilation rates. This is demonstrated using ventilation design tool types recommended by CIBSE AM106CIBSE AM10, 2005, Natural Ventilation in Non-Domestic Buildings (or for education buildings by using the ClassVent tool) .

    For a strategy which does not rely on openable windows, or which has occupied spaces with a plan depth greater than 15m, the design must demonstrate (in accordance with requirement 15b above) that the ventilation strategy can provide adequate cross flow of air to maintain the required thermal comfort conditions and ventilation rates.

  2. The natural ventilation strategy is capable of providing at least two levels of user-control on the supply of fresh air to the occupied space, as follows;
    1. Higher level: higher rates of ventilation achievable to remove short-term odours and/or prevent summertime overheating
    2. Lower level: adequate levels of draught-free fresh air to meet the need for good indoor air quality throughout the year, sufficient for the occupancy load and the internal pollution loads of the space.

    Any opening mechanisms must be easily accessible and provide adequate user-control over air flow rates to avoid draughts. Relevant industry standards for ventilation can be used to define ‘adequate levels of fresh air’ sufficient for occupancy and internal air pollution loads relevant to the building type.

    Multi-residential buildings with self contained flats and individual bedrooms must have a degree of openable window function. This does not need to provide two levels of user-control (as required above), but must be occupant controlled.

Laboratory fume cupboards and Containment areas

One credit (only applicable to buildings containing these facilities)

  1. Where fume cupboards are specified, they are manufactured and installed in accordance with the following;
    1. General purpose fume cupboards: BS EN 14175-2:20037BS EN 14175-2:2003 Fume Cupboards, Safety and Performance Requirements, BSi.
    2. Recirculatory filtration fume cupboards: BS 7989:20018BS 7989 Specification for recirculatory filtration fume cupboards, BSI, 2003.
    3. Microbiological safety cabinets: BS EN 12469:20009BS EN 12469:2000 Biotechnology. Performance criteria for microbiological safety cabinets
    Or, for Schools, Sixth Form Colleges and Further Education with labs and fume cupboards for subjects up to and including A-level (or equivalent):
    1. Building Bulletin 8810 Building Bulletin 88: Fume Cupboards in Schools, 1988, Department for Education & Employment, Fume cupboards in schools.
  2. Where ducted fume cupboards are specified, the discharged velocity from the extract fan stack from a ducted fume cupboard must be 10m/s as recommended by BS EN 14175-211BS EN 14175-2:2003, Fume cupboards. Safety and performance requirements.

Buildings with Containment Level 2 and 3 laboratory facilities

One credit (only applicable to buildings containing these facilities)

  1. Ventilation systems are designed in compliance with the best practice guidance set out in The management design and operation of microbiological containment laboratories ACDP, 200112The Management, Design and Operation of Microbiological Containment Levels, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens (ACDP), 2001.
  2. Filters for all areas designated as Containment Level 2 and 3 are located outside the main laboratory space for ease of cleaning/replacement and the filters are easily accessible for maintenance staff/technicians.
  3. An emergency button is specified in each Containment Level 2 and 3 laboratory area.
  4. The design team demonstrate that the individual fume cupboard location and stack heights have been considered in accordance with HMIP Technical Guidance Note (Dispersion) D113Guidelines on Discharge Stack Heights for Polluting Emissions, HMIP Technical Guidance Note (Dispersion) D1, 1993.

Compliance Notes

Ref

Terms

Description

CN1 

Shell only

VOC criteria: compliance can be demonstrated via one of the following means in shell only buildings/areas:

  1. Option 1 – Use of a tenancy lease agreement between the developer and tenant/s (full value of available credits)
  2. Option 2 – A Green Building Guide for tenant fit outs (half the value of the available credits)
  3. Option 3 – Developer/Tenant collaboration (full value of available credits)

Refer to Appendix D – BREEAM New Construction and shell and core/speculative assessments of this Scheme Document for further description of the above options.

CN2 

Furnishings See criterion 8

The scope of the VOC credits does not extend to furnishings e.g. desks/shelving, it focuses on the key internal finishes and fittings integral to the building.

CN3 

Relevant standards – VOC’s. See criterion 13 and Table 1

All standards outlined in Table 7 above are standards recognised across Europe for VOCs content and testing. In instances where a product is not assessed against the listed European or international standard, it is acceptable to use an alternative, nationally recognised, standard provided the following is met as a minimum:

  1. The performance level requirements required by the alternative standard are equivalent to or better than those specified in the standards in Table - 16. For example, if a material containing formaldehyde has been added to the floor covering product as part of the production process, then the E1 emission measured for formaldehyde must be less than 0.124mg/m3 (as required by EN 14041:2004).
  2. Where an alternative standard omits evaluation of a particular material, it is only acceptable to use the alternative standard in instances where the product does not contain that particular material.

BREEAM assessors should seek confirmation from BRE Global prior to awarding credits for compliance with standards not listed in Table 7 or previously approved as alternative nationally recognised standards.

 

CN4 

Alternative to testing for VOC's

For decorative paints and varnishes, where the product manufacturer states that the method to determine the VOC content in a product is to use a calculation technique rather than testing in accordance with BS EN 13300:2001, this will be acceptable for the purposes of BREEAM compliance provided the manufacturer has confirmed the following:

  1. The calculation method is acceptable for the purpose of compliance with the European Regulation on Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures (CLP), or where in transition to CLP, the UK Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009, and the product complies with the Decorative Paint Directive 2004/42/CE.
  2. The manufacturing process i.e the paint/varnish formulation and raw material mixing, is carried out in accordance with a ISO 9001 (or equivalent) certified quality management procedure.

CN5 

Products with no formaldehyde containing materials

For some floor coverings and wood based panels, the requirement for formaldehyde testing (referred to in the above criteria) does not apply to “floor coverings to which no formaldehyde-containing materials were added during production or post-production processing”, or in the case of EN 13986:2004, wood-based panels.

As such, if a product manufacturer confirms that they have made a declaration of formaldehyde class E1 without testing (in writing or via a company product fact sheet/literature) then the product in question meets the BREEAM requirement relevant to formaldehyde testing. A declaration of E1 without testing is effectively confirmation from the manufacturer that formaldehyde emissions comply with the emission level requirements of the relevant standard(s) therefore, evidence confirming the actual emission level(s) via testing will not be required by the assessor to demonstrate compliance with that particular requirement.

CN6 

Openable window area See criterion 15 The openable window area is defined as the geometric free ventilation area created when a ventilation opening, e.g. window, is open to its normal operational fully designed extent (i.e. this excludes open areas created when reversible windows are opened for cleaning etc). It is not the glazed area of a façade or the glazed area of the part of the window that is openable (unless it opens fully).

CN7 

Mechanically ventilated/cooled buildings See criterion 15 & 16

Buildings that employ a mechanically ventilated/cooled strategy are still able to achieve this credit provided it can be demonstrated that compliance with all of the relevant criteria can be made easily available to the building user e.g windows fixed shut for an air conditioned strategy can be modified to be opening windows. The aim of the potential for natural ventilation criteria is to ensure that a building is capable of providing fresh air using a natural ventilation strategy.

Where the building is predominantly naturally ventilated, but mechanical ventilation is necessary to boost ventilation during peak conditions, (i.e. maximum occupancy and/or peak temperature conditions) due to the function/specific usage patterns of the building, the potential for natural ventilation credit can still be awarded provided design team calculations/modelling demonstrate that the mechanical ventilation system will be required for 5% of the annual occupied hours in the occupied space(s) for the adopted building design/layout.

CN8 

Spaces requiring local exhaust ventilation See criterion 15,16,17 &18

Occupied spaces requiring local exhaust ventilation e.g. labs, workshops, food technology rooms must still demonstrate that they meet the criteria for potential for natural ventilation (unless listed below).

CN9 

Excluded occupied spaces for the potential for natural ventilation criteria

The following building areas, where relevant to the building type, can be excluded from the definition of occupied spaces for the potential for natural ventilation criteria:

  1. Ancillary building areas e.g. WCs corridors, stairwells, store rooms, plant rooms
  2. Swimming/hydrotherapy pools
  3. Catering and small staff kitchens
  4. Washrooms/changing areas
  5. Laboratory or other area where strictly controlled environmental conditions are a functional requirement of the space.
  6. Non-communal areas in multi-residential buildings (i.e. bedrooms, self contained flats).
  7. Custody cells and holding areas in law courts
  8. Operational, shop floor or ancillary areas in industrial and retail buildings
  9. Healthcare buildings: Rooms or departments where control of ventilation is required for prevention of cross infection and/or controlled environmental conditions including:
    1. operating theatres
    2. laser surgery unit
    3. operative imaging unit
    4. intensive treatment unit
    5. infectious diseases isolation unit
    6. wards housing immuno-compromised patients
    7. manufacturing pharmacy
    8. specialised imaging, X-ray and scanning unit
    9. pathology containment laboratories
    10. mortuary and dissection suite
    11. research laboratories and associated animal houses
    12. sterilising and disinfecting unit (SDU)
    13. emerging treatment technologies including gene therapy and stem cell units
    14. Areas immediately adjacent to the above are excluded if it can be demonstrated that reverse air flow would be likely with natural ventilation
    15. Any other areas which require mechanical ventilation to satisfy the requirements of Healthcare Technical Memorandums
    16. Any other areas that require mechanical ventilation due to specific operational related processes.

CN10 

Industrial areas: air pollution/ventilation rate requirements For industrial buildings the minimising sources of air pollution and potential for natural ventilation requirements and credits apply only to office areas and not operational areas. If the building does not contain any office areas, these credits and their requirements do not require assessing.

CN11 

Relevant standards for ventilation See criteria 4 & 15

Education buildings: Building Bulletin 101 Ventilation of School Buildings.

Offices spaces: Top of the range recommended in the British Council for Offices Guide to Best Practice in the Specification of Offices14BCO Guide 2009, Best Practice in the Specification of Offices, BCO, 2009. i.e. 12 litres per second per person.

Clinical areas with controlled environmental conditions: HTM 03-01 Specialised ventilation for healthcare premises15HTM 03-01 Specialised ventilation for healthcare premises, Department of Health, 2007.

Relevant standards are not listed for all areas/building types as the provision of fresh air is adequately covered in Approved Document Part F Ventilation (and the standards referenced there in).

CN12 

Measuring the distance. See criteria 2 & 3 The distance requirement for air intakes and extracts does not necessarily mean the plan distance, but the three dimensional distance around and over objects; e.g. on plan the air intakes may be less than 20m from a source of external pollution, but the intake may be on the roof of a 10 storey building and therefore over 20m from the source of pollution.

CN13 

Sources of external pollution See criterion 4

This includes but is not limited to the following:

  1. Highways and the main access roads on the assessed site
  2. Car parks and delivery/vehicle waiting bays
  3. Other building exhausts, including from building services plant industrial/agricultural processes

CN14 

Excluded sources of pollution Service and access roads with restricted and infrequent access (for example roads used only for waste collection) are unlikely to represent a significant source of external pollution. These roads can therefore be excluded from the criteria of this issue. This does not include vehicle pick-up/drop-off or waiting bays.

CN15 

Filters It should be noted that filters fitted on the air supply are not considered by BREEAM to provide adequate protection from sources of external pollution. As such the distance criteria cannot be relaxed where filters are specified.

CN16 

Areas with a large and unpredictable occupancy See criterion 5

The following are examples of these types of space:

  1. Auditoria
  2. Gyms
  3. Retail stores/malls
  4. Cinemas
  5. Waiting rooms

Where the assessed building does not have any areas deemed to be large with an unpredictable pattern of occupancy, the criterion does not apply.

CN17 

Healthcare buildings See criteria 15 & 16 In healthcare buildings some openings in public and patient areas need to be provided with restricted opening areas of not more than 100mm (HTM 55, Windows16Health Technical Memorandum 55 Building Components – Windows, NHS Estates, 1998.). This is due to health and safety reasons, especially where windows are within reach of the elderly, mentally ill or children. However, it is felt that good design can overcome these restrictions and provide compliant natural ventilation solutions, even in safety-sensitive areas.

CN18 

Fume cupboard requirement for schools and sixth form See criterion 17d For fume cupboards specified/installed for up to and including A’ Level subjects, confirmation of the specification and installation in accordance with Building Bulletin 88 will be acceptable for BREEAM compliance. BS 7989 and parts of BS 14175 may be relevant to some installations; in such cases the person/organisation responsible for producing/installing the lab equipment should be able to confirm if they are relevant given the type of fume cupboard installation.

CN19 

Building contains no fume cupboards or safety cabinets Please note that the laboratory and fume cupboard criteria, and therefore BREEAM credits, in this issue do not apply where laboratory space, fume cupboards or safety cabinets are not being installed within the assessed building.

Schedule of Evidence

Ref Design stage
Post-construction stage
Minimising indoor air pollution
1-5

Copy of the indoor air quality plan

Relevant section/clauses of the building specification or contract

Design drawings

Copy of the indoor air quality plan

BREEAM Assessor’s site inspection report and photographic evidence AND/OR ‘As-built’ drawings

For a naturally ventilated building, a letter from the design team or principal contractor confirming the building has been built in accordance with a design compliant with the BREEAM criteria

For a mechanically ventilated building, the commissioning manager’s performance testing report confirming the required fresh air rates are achieved

6-8

Copy of the indoor air quality plan

Relevant section/clauses of the building specification or contract

Letter from or copies of the manufacturer’s literature confirming testing standards and emissions achieved

9-14

Copy of the indoor air quality plan

Commitment to carry out necessary testing post construction

Copy of the indoor air quality plan

Confirmation from the project team that the recommendations are still relevant/have been implemented

Testing results for formaldehyde and TVOC’s

Potential for natural ventilation
15-16

Relevant section/clauses of the building specification or contract

Formal letter from the design team with details of the ventilation strategy and calculations/results from appropriate software modelling tool(s)

Manufacturers’/suppliers’ literature

BREEAM Assessor’s site inspection report and photographic evidence* AND/OR ‘As-built’ drawings, specification and calculations OR

A formal letter from the design team or principal contractor confirming no changes have occurred since design stage.

* A random spot check of a selection of occupied spaces is sufficient. The assessor is not required to check each opening in all spaces/rooms.

Laboratories and containment areas
17-22

Relevant section/clauses of the building specification or contract AND/OR a formal letter from the design team

Design drawings

BREEAM Assessor’s site inspection report and photographic evidence AND/OR 'As built' drawings

Correspondence from the design team confirming installation of a compliant system(s)

A copy of the manufacturers’/suppliers’ literature or a letter from these parties confirming their cupboards/cabinets are manufactured and installed in accordance with the relevant standards.

Additional Information

Relevant definitions

ClassVent
ClassVent is a customised spreadsheet design tool that provides a means of sizing ventilation openings for a natural ventilation strategy for school classrooms. The tool was developed by the Department for Children, Families and Schools (formerly DfES). The tool can be downloaded from http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/docbank/index.cfm?id=9955
Clinical areas
Hea 01 Visual comfort.
 
Containment Levels
Containment Levels 2 and 3 are defined in The Management, Design and Operation of Microbiological Containment Laboratories 2001, ACDP.
Fume cupboard/safety cabinet
A piece of scientific equipment designed to limit a person's exposure to hazardous fumes or biological material. Air is drawn through the enclosure of the cupboard conducting the contaminated air away from the experimental area and those using the equipment.
Occupied space
Hea 01 Visual comfort.
Volatile Organic Compound
Any organic liquid and/or solid that evaporates spontaneously at the prevailing temperature and pressure of the atmosphere with which it is in contact (Source: BS EN ISO 11890).

Checklists and Tables

None

Calculation procedures

None

Other Information

Indoor air quality and measurement

The testing and measurement of pollutants must be in accordance with the relevant standards (as listed in the criteria). Sample measurements should normally be taken in representative habitable or occupiable rooms, so not every room in a building would need to be sampled (see below for examples of representative room types). For example, in an office, one sample in a cellular/single occupancy office should suffice to assess the VOC concentration of the air for that type of habitable space in the building (assuming the other cellular offices have the same specification). In larger rooms, such as open-plan office area, further sampling locations should be used to understand the homogeneity of the atmosphere. Depending upon the performance of the measurement method in terms of repeatability and the required level of confidence in the value obtained, replicate samples may be taken at one or more sampling locations.

Prior to measurements being taken, the ventilation and heating systems should be operating for a period of time to ensure the relevant spaces in the building reach equilibrium in terms of their internal environmental conditions. Typically this may take between 12-24 hours.

Examples of representative room types include naturally ventilated carpeted office; mechanically ventilated vinyl floored meeting room; workshop; living room or bedroom. Rooms that are not habitable or occupiable may for example include toilets, store room, plant room, stairways or corridors. The definition of “habitable or occupiable rooms” comes from Approved Document F, Means of Ventilation, HM Government, 2010.

In accordance with the criteria, where levels are found to exceed the defined limits, the credit can only be claimed where the project team confirms the measures that have, or will be undertaken in accordance with the IAQ plan, to reduce the TVOC and formaldehyde levels to within the required limits.

This information is provided to assist project teams and BREEAM assessors on the appropriate scope of IAQ testing; therefore it is guidance only and not a requirement of complying with BREEAM. The testing regime should be determined based on the advice of the appropriate person appointed to conduct the testing, in order to determine and report representative values of indoor air quality for the building.

There are a number of publications available on the issue of measuring and improving the indoor air quality in buildings including BR 450, A protocol for the assessment of indoor air quality in homes and office buildings, Crump, Raw, Upton, Scivyer, Hunter, Hartless. BRE (2002).

Volatile Organic Compounds

VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, glues and adhesives, Urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI), pressed wood products (hardwood plywood wall panelling, particleboard, fibreboard) and furniture made with these pressed wood products.

‘No’ or ‘low’ VOC paints are available from most standard mainstream paint manufacturers. The emissions of VOCs from paints and varnishes are regulated by the Directive 2004/42/CE, implemented in the UK by the Volatile Organic Compounds in Paints, Varnishes and Vehicle Refinishing Products Regulation 2005. Products containing high organic solvent content should also be avoided (EU VOC Solvent Directive 1999/13/EC).

Exposure risk assessment of any possible release of chemicals from manufactured products and their possible impact on health and the environment generally, is an important requirement of European regulations. The possible impact of a building product on indoor air quality is included in the European Construction Products Directive, 89/106/EEC. The amended Directive, 93/68/EEC provided the criteria for CE Marking of products.

Products to be fitted in buildings should not contain any substances regulated by the Dangerous Substances Directive 2004/42/CE, which could cause harm to people by inhalation or contact. Materials containing heavy metals (e.g. antimony, barium, cadmium, lead and mercury) and other toxic elements (e.g. arsenic, chromium and selenium) or regulated biocides (e.g. pentachlorophenol) should be avoided.

Various labelling schemes identify products that have been tested and shown to be low emitting and these have been summarised in BRE Digest 464. The standards outlined in Table 7 however are the only standards recognised by BREEAM for the purposes of assessing this issue.

Dangerous substances are defined in the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)

BS EN 14175 and Fume cupboard discharge velocity: BS EN 14175 Part 2 states that the discharge velocity from fume cupboard extracts should be at least 7m/s but that a figure of 10m/s is preferable to ensure that the discharge will not be trapped in the aerodynamic wake of the stack. Higher discharge velocities may be required, especially in windy locations, but higher rates may cause noise problems.

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